Étude numérique de la dynamique des défauts d’alignement des précipités γ’ dans les superalliages monocristallins à base de nickel

Abstract : In multiphase alloys, internal elastic fields often arise as a result of a coherently adjusted misfit between the lattices of coexisting phases. Given their long-range and usually anisotropic nature, the interaction of these fields is known to significantly alter the kinetics of diffusion-controlled phase transformations, as well as influence the shapes and spatial arrangement of the misfitting precipitates. In the microstructure of single-crystal nickel-base superalloys, obtained by precipitation of the L12-ordered γ’ phase in the FCC γ matrix, elasticity leads to the formation of nearly periodic alignments of the cuboidal γ’ precipitates. However, the γ/γ’ microstructure systematically displays defects in the precipitate alignment: branches, macro-dislocations and chevron patterns. We first address the question of the origin of these alignment defects. Stability analyses of the periodic arrangement of elastically interacting precipitates are carried out. Contrary to the expected stability, the semi-analytical calculations revealed the periodic distribution of cubic γ‘ precipitates to be unstable against specific perturbation modes. The main instabilities are the [100] longitudinal mode and the [110] transverse mode, and their instability range is analyzed with respect to the elastic anisotropy. The consequences of these unstable modes are investigated using a classic phase field method, by modeling the evolution of periodic microstructures undergoing small initial perturbations. We show the expression of the instabilities mainly proceeds by the evolution of the precipitate shapes, and leads to the formation of patterns which were related to experimental microstructures. Specifically, the [110] transverse instability is responsible for the formation of chevron patterns. The effects of the volume fraction and of an inhomogeneity on the C’ shear modulus on the stability of the arrangement are studied, and we show the role they play in the partial stabilization of the periodic distribution, though the [100] longitudinal mode always remains unstable. In phase field calculations carried out in previous studies, the dynamics of alignment defects are analyzed by means of topological parameters derived from pattern formation theory. During annealing, branches and macro-dislocations were observed to migrate in the microstructure according to climbing and gliding mechanisms. We then use a new formulation of phase field models, intrinsically discrete, in which the interfaces are resolved with essentially one grid point with no pinning on the grid and an accurate rotational invariance. This approach, known as the Sharp Phase Field Method (S-PFM), is implemented on a FCC grid and accounts for the four translational variants of the γ’ precipitates. We show that the S-PFM allows for the modeling of large-scale microstructures, with several thousand precipitates both in two and three dimensions, and provides access to statistical information on the microstructure evolution and on the the dynamics of alignment defects. We finally discuss the perspective of modeling the evolution of the γ/γ’ microstructure at the macroscale by means of a description of the defect dynamics in the precipitate alignments.
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Matthieu Degeiter. Étude numérique de la dynamique des défauts d’alignement des précipités γ’ dans les superalliages monocristallins à base de nickel. Matériaux. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0038⟩. ⟨tel-02316373⟩

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