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Écologie des Oomycètes et champignons phytopathogènes dans les sols de forêt de Guyane Française : éclairages sur les relations entre communautés de Phytophthora et d’arbres dans les forêts tropicales

Abstract : The mecanisms implied in the maintenance of plant diversity in tropical forests are still poorly known. One particularly studied hypothesis is the Janzen-Connell hypothesis, which posits that these mecanisms are essentially caused by the interactions between plant and their natural enemies, including pathogenic organisms. In this thesis, we looked at the pathogenic organisms present in the soils of a Guyanese forest, and the specificity of their interactions withplants. In the case where the Janzen-Connell hypothesis would be verified, we could expect that pathogenic micro-organisms communities would be structured by plants. Our works focused on Oomycetes and especially the Phytophthora, which are very important pathogens of trees, but we also took an interest on pathogenic Fungi. Thus, we developed PCR primer sets specific of the Phytophthora and Peronosporomycete groups, in order to study these organismsthroughmetabarcoding. These primers were then used to investigate the community of Phytophthora in soils sampled from two French Guiana sites, near trees belonging to 10 families. A low diversity was described, with a total of only 8 taxas, and the overwhelming dominance of the species complex P. heveae. A weak host effect was detected. In a complementary study, we looked at the diversity of Oomycetes and Fungi in soils and litters of six monospecific tree plantations and a Guianese natural forest. Structuration by host appeared to be null for Oomycetes and weak for pathogenic Fungi. Finally, we did not success in trying to experimentally provoke, through forest soil inoculations, Janzen-Connell mortalities due to Oomycetes on the Wacapou, a Guianese tree species. In the end, the results of this thesis do not support the hypothesis that Oomycetes may be important agents of the maintenance of tree diversity in tropical forests. Moreover, they bring some questions about the low diversity of this group of micro-organisms in a tree diversity hotspot.
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-02331046
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Jean Legeay. Écologie des Oomycètes et champignons phytopathogènes dans les sols de forêt de Guyane Française : éclairages sur les relations entre communautés de Phytophthora et d’arbres dans les forêts tropicales. Biologie végétale. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0072⟩. ⟨tel-02331046⟩

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