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L’héritage persan dans la littérature de jeunesse iranienne contemporaine : tradition et renouvellement

Abstract : Children’s literature in Iran has its roots in the millennial long traditions of story telling in the region. Although, the field as it is perceived today, is relatively young, it has been rapidly evolving and growing starting mostly in the 1960s. We have studied and present this contemporary form of children’s literature as it developed up to advent of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. To do this, we first had to look for the origins of the contemporary literature, and second, to comb through the evolution of the new form and the modalities of this genesis. This justifies the division of the thesis in two parts. First history and second the contemporary literature up to 1978. The youth of Iran, endowed with a rich literary heritage, have always benefited form and been a part of the literature. The original forms of this children’s literature were mostly oral story telling, but inseparable from the classic Persian literature. Some of this oral tradition was written down in small «Books of advises/ Advise books ». These types of books have an ancient origin in Iran dating back to ancient Persia. The moralizing and educational texts of these books compose a part of the Persian literary heritage. The objective of these texts aimed at children was introducing them to the habits and customs, to impart their savoir-vivre and ethics. The book Zadan Farrokh among others’ is a good example. After the advent of Islam in Iran, 6th century AD, many Persian literary works emerged, in part as a response to the ban placed on Persian language by the Arab-speaking invaders. Far from being created exclusively for the youth, these works aimed to pass on the oral story-telling tradition in a literary form. Soon, they began to emerge as didactic books for teaching children. “Gulistan” and “Kalileh va Demneh” are among the works claiming the largest share. These texts set the foundation for the creation of semi-formal handwritten texts for teaching literature to children and adolescents of the elite. Over the centuries these works fostered the formation of the separate field of children’s literature. Modern texts written exclusively for children, however, did not appear until the middle of the 20th century. As for children’s literature today, it is composed of three categories of texts: original works by contemporary writers, rewriting of Persian classical works, and translations of international children’s literature. There is a triangular relationship between the creators of the children’s books, the culture, and the younger generation. In order to better understand this evolution and development of the current children’s literature, we looked at historical events that may have had significant impacts on this literature. We also studied the reuse of the Persian traditions for creating children’s books from classical and folkloric works. The tendency to rewrite the old texts does indeed prove the notion of nationalized identity. Persian language and traditions have survived the vagaries of history, among others, thanks to the versification that manifests itself as powerful in children’s literature as that of adults. In sum, we have been able to demonstrate the process of evolution in the field of children’s literature in Iran. Starting from a distant past in order to shed light on its new form in the twentieth century.
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Sépideh Shaghaghi Nejad. L’héritage persan dans la littérature de jeunesse iranienne contemporaine : tradition et renouvellement. Littératures. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0321⟩. ⟨tel-02888058⟩



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