Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Theses

Étude intégrative des facteurs environnementaux, de la génétique et de l’épigénétique du patient atteint d’obésité avant et après la chirurgie bariatrique

Abstract : Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, resulting from genetic and environmental influences. In 2016, obesity affected more than 1.9 billion people worldwide, and this disorder is associated with multiple co-morbidities. In France, few treatment options are available to manage obesity such as lifestyle and behavior changes with poor results. In contrast, bariatric surgery leads to significant weight loss, better quality of life and decreased mortality rate. However, it is associated with nutritional complications. We evaluated in a cohort of patients undergoing bariatric surgery (OBESEPI "severe and epigenetic obesity") nutritional, genetic and epigenetic factors at medium-term following surgery. First, we observed that the vitamin B12 concentration before surgery was the only predictor of vitamin B12 concentration at a period of time (e.g. 2 years) after surgery, and it was also associated with age and aspartate aminotransferase / platelet ratio score. Second, we studied 14 rare / uncommon coding variants in "OBESEPI" patients as cases, and in the French Exome (FREX) as controls. We constructed a risk score, or protective score based on 11 rare variants. The results showed that neither the risk score nor the protective score was associated with preoperative BMI in patients with obesity or having an effect on the change in BMI in response to a lifestyle /behavior modification. In contrast, rare protective variants (decreased BMI) were significantly less common in patients with severe obesity compared to healthy controls. Third, we compared DNA methylation profiles using genome-wide analysis in cases and controls from the OBESEPI and the Marseille Thrombosis Association (MARTHA). This study showed that DNA methylation profiles in people with obesity were similar between the whole blood and liver, but not the visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, this integrative approach to this work provided evidence for the interaction between genetic and environmental exposures in the pathogenesis of the obese phenotype.
Complete list of metadata

https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-03184544
Contributor : Thèses Ul <>
Submitted on : Monday, March 29, 2021 - 3:41:17 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 1, 2021 - 6:25:48 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Wednesday, June 30, 2021 - 6:44:15 PM

File

DDOC_T_2020_0199_ANTOINE.pdf
Files produced by the author(s)

Identifiers

  • HAL Id : tel-03184544, version 1

Citation

Darlène Antoine. Étude intégrative des facteurs environnementaux, de la génétique et de l’épigénétique du patient atteint d’obésité avant et après la chirurgie bariatrique. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. Université de Lorraine, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LORR0199⟩. ⟨tel-03184544⟩

Share

Metrics

Record views

163

Files downloads

196