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Le modèle épistémologiqueThomas d'Aquin/Jean Calvin d'Alvin Plantinga : approche comparée sur la connaissance naturelle de Dieu

Abstract : Since the 1960s, Alvin Plantinga has focused on the problem of guaranteeing religious belief, de-fending the idea that a person does not transgress any epistemic rule by affirming that God exists and that no argument is necessary to be able to assert rationally that God exists.To support his thinking, he proposes a model. This model associates the Geneva reformer, John Calvin, to the Catholic theologian and philosopher, Thomas of Aquinas. Plantinga highlights their common reflections on the natural knowledge of God, an intuitive knowledge which, while not based on reasoning, is not considered contrary to reason. The following study seeks to test the re-levance of this Aquinas/Calvin model. Can the argument defended inWarranted Christian Belief indeed claim to be a development of ideas that sprouts from these two thinkers ?Plantinga's work is not the work of a Philosophy historian. The examination of his work requires first of all a good understanding of his model: understanding what problem it intends to solved and how this problem presented itself to the author. To the question: "Can or cannot the believer rationally affirm that God exists?" , theReformed Epistemology of which Plantinga is one of the initiators answer by developping an original way that intends to escape the traditional alternative between natural theology and natural atheology.Plantinga asserting that this way finds a rough outline in the religious epistemology of Aquinas and Calvin, the examination continues with a presentation of the conceptions that these two au-thors make of the natural knowledge of God. A philosophical model, if it is not an identical re-production of the original, must however resemble it. The study of Aquinas and Calvin aims to give a comprehensive idea of their apprehension of the question in order to be able to judge this resemblance.The study ends by confronting of the sources with the model. It begins by highlighting the com-mon features, showing that the author's intuition is not unfounded. But it then develops three themes: the link between original sin and the natural knowledge of God, thesensus divinitatis and the analogy with the sensitive, the confused knowledge and the distinct knowledge of God. And, these themes bear witness to a very different originality from that which the name of the model suggested.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 28, 2021 - 4:02:35 PM
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Julien Gautier. Le modèle épistémologiqueThomas d'Aquin/Jean Calvin d'Alvin Plantinga : approche comparée sur la connaissance naturelle de Dieu. Philosophie. Université de Lorraine, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021LORR0028⟩. ⟨tel-03211307⟩



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