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Étude multi-échelle des interactions saprophages-matières organiques et de leurs implications dans le fonctionnement des humipedons de Technosols : approche fondamentale vers l’ingénierie écologique

Abstract : In a context of soil degradation and erosion of biodiversity resulting from anthropogenic activities, understanding the role of edaphic fauna in the functioning of humipedons is of growing interest. The development of reclamation strategies on anthropized soils, based on the concepts of ecological engineering, could be based on the actions of transformation of organic matter carried out by saprophagous organisms. The objective of this thesis was (i) to characterize the ecological functions performed by saprophagous organisms through the production of biostructures on anthropized soils and (ii) to assess their potential for the reclamation of brownfields Technosols. To do so, an integrative approach, based on the changes of spatial scale, was carried out on an industrial brownfield of interest. First, it was demonstrated that Technosols physicochemical characteristics can represent an abiotic filter limiting the colonization of edaphic fauna, especially highlighted by the absence of anecic and endogeic earthworms in Technosols. Secondly, at the scale of the humipedon, the results showed that the dynamics of organic matter formed by vegetation also depends on the nature of the substrate used during the rehabilitation of the brownfield. Indeed, under the action of epigeic saprophagous arthropods, a series of ectorganic horizons, similar to the ones of a Moder, developed on the technogenic horizon of Technosols. The term "Techno-moder" has thus been proposed to describe this new humus form. The chemical and ultrastructural features of the Techno-moder zOH horizon, made up of biostructures produced by saprophagous, also confirmed this classification proposal. Finally, feces produced by the saprophagous isopod Porcellio scaber, studied under controlled conditions, allowed to demonstrate that their physicochemical characteristics depend on the Technosol substrate and on organic matter chemical features. In agreement with the conclusions at the humipedon scale, it seems that feces traits produced by the epigeic saprophagous arthropods are an intrinsic characteristic of the ecosystem, which results from the Technosols humipedons composition. The development of Technosols reclamation strategies using coupled inoculation of saprophagous and organic matter could thus improve Technosols humipedons physicochemical characteristics while requiring the specific interactions of organisms with the substrate to be taken into account.
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Submitted on : Monday, July 12, 2021 - 9:25:33 PM
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Gabin Colombini. Étude multi-échelle des interactions saprophages-matières organiques et de leurs implications dans le fonctionnement des humipedons de Technosols : approche fondamentale vers l’ingénierie écologique. Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Lorraine, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LORR0277⟩. ⟨tel-03284825⟩

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