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Conservation-development trade-offs in the Brazilian Amazon : the case of protected areas downgrading, downsizing and degazettemen

Abstract : Protected Areas (PAs) have been a key conservation tool in the Brazilian Amazon region, which has an important role in mitigating climate change while facing strong development challenges. However, conservation-development conflicts over land-uses have led PAs to lack effectiveness, either because of isolated location (location bias), or because of ineffective enforcement. Besides, PAs deter economic development when they set aside land, which have led to an acceleration of PA downgrading, downsizing and degazettement (PADDD) over the last decades. The objective of this thesis is to examine the relation between PADDD events and conservation-development trade-offs in the Brazilian Amazon according to PAs' and landscape's heterogeneities. I evaluate their relation first, in terms of decisions and second, in terms of impacts on deforestation and on economic development. In the first chapter, we assess drivers of PADDD events by examining how conservation-development interactions induce PA size reductions. Between 2006 and 2015, they were more common near cities, which reflects the influence of development agencies. Indeed, PA size reductions could generate high environmental costs since PAs were less deforested. PA size reductions were also more likely when they were already deforested and costly to manage, reflecting the influence of environmental agencies. In the second chapter, we assess the impact of 2009-2012 PA size reductions on 2010-2015 deforestation using matching strategies according to economic pressure in the landscape and past PAs effectiveness. Our results are consistent with what we expected conceptually: PA size reductions had no impact when PAs did not faced or did not constraint economic pressures, and raised deforestation when PAs blocked economic pressures to some extent. In the third chapter, we evaluate the effect of 2001-2010 PADDD events on income distribution and inequalities. We use matching and difference-in-differences estimations according to economic pressures in the landscape and to PADDD events' effect on the final size of protection. Where economic pressures were high, new economic opportunities that followed strict protection reductions have contributed to the growth of the higher-middle income class. Far from economic pressures, we found a decrease in inequalities when PADDD events increased protection size, probably due to better PA management or the development of tourism activities. This thesis calls for more robust PAs analysis taking into account their impermanence and landscape heterogeneities. These results could help to allocate scarce resources to consolidate the protected area network where it would be most effective and to choose more optimal sites and management types for new PA designations.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 21, 2021 - 4:02:39 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03294488, version 1

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Derya Keles. Conservation-development trade-offs in the Brazilian Amazon : the case of protected areas downgrading, downsizing and degazettemen. Economics and Finance. Université de Lorraine, 2021. English. ⟨NNT : 2021LORR0085⟩. ⟨tel-03294488⟩

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