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Développement de nouvelles approches analytiques pour le criblage de peptides chélateurs de fer

Abstract : Faced with the growing need for new bioactive compounds of natural origin, by-products from the agro-food industry and the processing of agro-resources constitute a strategic resource to be exploited. In fact, the enzymatic hydrolysis of plant or animal proteins makes it possible to generate a wide variety of peptide sequences with potential biological properties: antihypertensive, antithrombotic, anticancer, opioid, antimicrobial. Despite the bioactive potential of certain peptides, their uncertain presence and their low concentration in a protein hydrolysate (a complex mixture sometimes made up of more than a hundred peptides) limit their purification and use. Also, bioactive peptides could be screened before their purification in order to initiate the separation step only if activity is proven. Antioxidant power is a generic term which groups together various chemical mechanisms such as anti-free radical activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, or even metal chelation. By chelating the transition metals naturally present in vivo (iron, copper), the chelating peptides could be used as indirect antioxidants and thus act against oxidative stress. The main objective of this PhD thesis is to develop original methods for high throughput screening of iron-chelating peptides present in protein hydrolysates. Ultimately, these methods could be applied to all types of complex peptide mixtures. The first approach is based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). IMAC is a reference technique for purifying metal-chelating peptides in hydrolysates. Thanks to the specificity of interaction between a given metal – immobilized on the stationary phase IMAC – and determined complexing groups, it is possible to selectively identify the chelators present in complex mixtures. Our objective being to achieve a rapid detection of these molecules of interest, we carried out an on-line coupling with mass spectrometry (MS). The second strategy consists of evaluating the formation of iron-peptide complexes in solution. In this case, all the electron acceptor sites of the metal are accessible (unlike the IMAC technique which presents a potential bias from this point of view) and, on the other hand, the solubilization conditions can simulate the target medium (i.e. the intracellular medium). In addition, the observation of the peptidic form complexed with iron (FeII or FeIII) provides direct and irrefutable proof of the chelating capacity of a peptide. Thus, the identification of a chelating peptide can be carried out by the concomitant detection of its free form (peptide) and of its complexed form (iron-peptide). In this approach, mass spectrometry – thanks to its sensitivity and its specificity - is a technique of choice for carrying out the desired screening. After having been tested on synthetic peptides (pure solutions and mixture), the two protocols were applied to a real protein hydrolysate. The preliminary results are promising and make it possible to envisage, in the short term, the automated screening of various real hydrolysates for the search for iron(II)- and iron(III)-chelating peptides.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 27, 2021 - 9:21:26 AM
Last modification on : Saturday, October 16, 2021 - 11:26:21 AM

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Cédric Paris. Développement de nouvelles approches analytiques pour le criblage de peptides chélateurs de fer. Génie des procédés. Université de Lorraine, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021LORR0088⟩. ⟨tel-03355015⟩



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