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Obstacles et facilitateurs à l’inclusion scolaire des élèves allophones dans l’enseignement secondaire en France et incidences didactiques

Abstract : Our research focuses on the educational inclusion of so-called "allophone" pupils in ordinary courses in public secondary schools in France. These pupils - migrants and not yet speaking the language of schooling - are thus appointed by the educational institution.Qualitative, the study is based on the analysis of a quinquangular corpus (work, questionnaires, student interviews, autobiographical writings, school reports) collected from 33 learners and 6 teachers (Académie de Nancy-Metz). This study sheds light on the metropolitan situation. The allophone problem arises from an aggregation of multiple factors. We study the facilitators and obstacles to the educational inclusion of allophone students by studying the speeches of the students and the didactic approaches of the teachers participating in our research.Our questions as a researcher emerged in connection with our professional experience and our readings. Three research hypotheses are subordinate to it. First, the socio-economic family context is not the only obstacle to the academic success of the allophone students monitored. Then, the affiliation in the disciplinary course of French of the followed allophone students allows a better mastered learning of the FLSco. Finally, the inclusion in disciplinary French courses allows allophone students monitored to invest more in the school.It emerges from this study that the monitored learners share a fragile socio-economic context and that the family composition and the size of the siblings distinguish the monitored students. However, these elements do not appear to be factors in themselves that slow down academic success. While the majority are struggling, some followed learners do well in school. However, language disparities persisted over the year, or even widened. The expression of a school project is not interdependent on their regular class affiliation, it is rather linked to their cultural origins.The didactic approaches of the teachers participating in our research are heterogeneous. They depend on intellectual and contextualized resources. Teachers are not always sensitive to the cultural particularities of their students - which can be a disservice to the students being monitored - because they are not trained enough. This study shows that the model of initial and in-service teacher training should evolve, in closer connection with research.Despite a national framework, the specific arrangements for the education of allophone students vary academically and even at the departmental level. This translates, in the field, into educational inequalities. In our corpus, it appears that the resources mobilized by the students and their teachers are heterogeneous. Thus, the school environment is one of the facilitators for inclusion and academic success.There is also a distortion between the institutional prescriptions and the reality on the ground, which can be explained by the dilemma facing the educational institution. The latter must give full place to the French language but also provide space for the identity of learners from diverse backgrounds. The vertical management of the allophone problem, its implementation - made more complex by the large number of partners - and an insufficient state of research and training unbalance the conditions for the education of allophones. The allophone question would need to be considered holistically.
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Submitted on : Friday, April 8, 2022 - 11:48:53 AM
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Julie Prévost-Zuddas. Obstacles et facilitateurs à l’inclusion scolaire des élèves allophones dans l’enseignement secondaire en France et incidences didactiques. Linguistique. Universié de Lorraine, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021LORR0219⟩. ⟨tel-03635166⟩



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