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Phénoménologie de l'être-avec-autrui dans la pensée de Martin Heidegger (1915-1930) : étude lexicographique, topique et critique

Abstract : The factuality of daily coexistence, in the sense of the common experience which is found at first sight under the dominance of dissimulation and which is first given to phenomenology as the field of the search for the truth of being, confirms the he hypothesis according to which being-in-the-world is the fundamental constitution of the factuality of being-one-with-the other. Being-in-the-world with others determines the meaning of Dasein's being as being-with-others (Mitsein) and is the condition of possibility of improper modalities of concealment and discovery. Being-there-with answers the question of the ontological constitution of Dasein: the structure of my being contains others by virtue of the very constitution of my being: being-with-others (Mitsein). But it is a question of an existential-ontological relation which is, according to the Heideggerian conception of the being of human existence, the condition of possibility of the "intersubjective world", that is to say of any intersubjective relation in the sense of the empirical relation of the I-you. On the ontological foundation of being-there-with (in the existential-ontological sense), all of Dasein's behaviors (linguistic, temporal, affective behaviors) are manifested in correlation with being-there-with others. It is in this purely existential-ontological sense that we could, by reading the Heideggerian corpus and extending it, speak of the co-affectiion of Dasein, “being-with others” being contemporaneous with being-with my Dasein. Clearly, Mit (with) tacitly accompanies all modes of being of being that we are, including loneliness. One of the consequences of the Heideggerian abandonment of intersubjectivity is found in the conception of Mitdasein according to which the factual coexistence of Dasein with the other structures both its very being and its behaviors, on the grounds that the being of the being-there, qua being-with, is inseparable from its modes of being. This ontological connection of oneself to others explains, on the one hand, the negative possibility of dissimulation, particularly in gossip, and on the other hand, the positive possibility of experiencing the truth, as for example in listening. mutual, mutual understanding and communication. Nevertheless, the truth of being is characterized by its elusiveness, its abscondity as evidenced by its mode of demonstration: "it shows itself in a concealed manner". Thus, the experience of truth resists objectification and the human will to possess it as an object. However, it fails to open the sphere of coexistence with others beyond the world because of the limit of temporality and finitude. Hence the need to open the experience of the original truth beyond temporality to an absolute otherness which takes on the character of eternity. The meaning of freedom would then expand as a mode of being which manifests itself positively or negatively in three directions: towards being, towards the being of being and towards pure Love, in the sense of Truth first, eternal and uncreated, in a word the Deity.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 12, 2022 - 2:43:55 PM
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Toussaint Daman. Phénoménologie de l'être-avec-autrui dans la pensée de Martin Heidegger (1915-1930) : étude lexicographique, topique et critique. Philosophie. Université de Lorraine, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021LORR0223⟩. ⟨tel-03639006⟩



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