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Diagnostic Accuracy of Procalcitonin for Predicting Blood Culture Results in Patients With Suspected Bloodstream Infection

Abstract : Previous studies have suggested that procalcitonin is a reliable marker for predicting bacteremia. However, these studies have had relatively small sample sizes or focused on a single clinical entity. The primary endpoint of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for predicting or excluding clinically relevant pathogen categories in patients with suspected bloodstream infections. The secondary endpoint was to look for organisms significantly associated with internationally validated procalcitonin intervals. We performed a cross-sectional study that included 35,343 consecutive patients who underwent concomitant procalcitonin assays and blood cultures for suspected bloodstream infections. Biochemical and microbiological data were systematically collected in an electronic database and extracted for purposes of this study. Depending on blood culture results, patients were classified into 1 of the 5 following groups: negative blood culture, Gram-positive bacteremia, Gram-negative bacteremia, fungi, and potential contaminants found in blood cultures (PCBCs). The highest procalcitonin concentration was observed in patients with blood cultures growing Gram-negative bacteria (median 2.2ng/mL [IQR 0.6-12.2]), and the lowest procalcitonin concentration was observed in patients with negative blood cultures (median 0.3ng/mL [IQR 0.1-1.1]). With optimal thresholds ranging from 0.4 to 0.75ng/mL, procalcitonin had a high diagnostic accuracy for excluding all pathogen categories with the following negative predictive values: Gram-negative bacteria (98.9%) (including enterobacteria [99.2%], nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli [99.7%], and anaerobic bacteria [99.9%]), Gram-positive bacteria (98.4%), and fungi (99.6%). A procalcitonin concentration 10ng/mL was associated with a high risk of Gram-negative (odds ratio 5.98; 95% CI, 5.20-6.88) or Gram-positive (odds ratio 3.64; 95% CI, 3.11-4.26) bacteremia but dramatically reduced the risk of PCBCs or fungemia. In this large real-life setting experience with more than 35,000 patients, procalcitonin was highly effective at excluding bloodstream infections regardless of pathogen categories. The results from our study are limited by its cross-sectional design and deserve to be validated in prospective longitudinal studies.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 9, 2017 - 2:12:23 PM
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Abderrahim Oussalah, Janina Ferrand, Pierre Filhine-Tresarrieu, Nejla Aissa, Isabelle Aimone-Gastin, et al.. Diagnostic Accuracy of Procalcitonin for Predicting Blood Culture Results in Patients With Suspected Bloodstream Infection. Medicine, 2015, 94 (44), pp.e1774. ⟨10.1097/MD.0000000000001774⟩. ⟨hal-01485790⟩



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