Evaluation de la diversité métabolique de dégradation des HAPs et de leurs métabolites par les communautés microbiennes de divers sols de friches industrielles

Abstract : Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and particularly of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widely studied due to the ubiquitous distribution, the persistence in soil and the toxicity to human health of these compounds. In this study, the development of a technique using Biolog MT2 microplates has been used to assess the metabolic potential of soil microbial communities for the degradation of a range of aromatic compounds including PAHs, polar PACs and intermediate and final PAHs-degradation products. This technique was used to test the metabolic degradation potential of microbial communities after the recontamination of one soil with various aromatic compound (PAHs or metabolites) and for different soils under the influence of plants. Beside several bias of the technic, the results show that this technique allows to highlight changes in degradation profile between conditions. The re-contamination with phthalate, fluorene or 9-fluorenone decreases the microbial communities metabolic degradation potential for at least 4 compounds and conversely that re-contamination with phenanthrene or 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate improves it for 5 compounds. In addition, the presence of plants causes an increase in metabolic potential degradation both Homécourt and Joeuf soils (54, France). The results also show that three soil with different level of PAH pollution have different metabolic profiles. Fluorescence spectrometry confirmed the phenanthrene degradation potential of the microbial communities of Neuves-Maisons soil. These results were compared to the quantification of phylogenetic markers (16S rDNA and 18S rDNA) and functionnal (PAHdioxygenases) genes. Even if the re-contamination of the soil did not modify the bacterial and fungal abundances, the pyrene re-contamination pyrene causes an increase of Gram-positive bacteria holding PAH-dioxygenases.
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Master thesis
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Louis Hermon. Evaluation de la diversité métabolique de dégradation des HAPs et de leurs métabolites par les communautés microbiennes de divers sols de friches industrielles. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. 2014. ⟨hal-01841605⟩

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