Reconsidération du moteur de Carnot : de la faisabilité thermodynamique à la faisabilité technique

Abstract : Sadi Carnot's work places the foundations of thermodynamics equilibrium. Carnot cycle is the thermostatic limit to convert thermal energy into mechanical energy and involves the process of reversibility. This ideal cycle does not allow the realization of a Carnot engine physically realistic. The "Finite Dimension Thermodynamics" or "Finite Time Thermodynamics" has optimally dimensioned and realistic a Carnot engine. The model used is a thermomechanical converter taking into account the internal irreversibility, heat losses and including source and heat sink of finite heat capacity. The optimization is performed to maximize the power and released for various constraints finitude. The high and low temperature fluid cycle are taken as variables, and the efficiencies exchanger, the heat release rates, the number of transfer units and finally the exchange surfaces. The entropic analysis is used to define dissipative processes, such as losses in the heat exchangers, and introduce them into the model. A simplified model in half-exchangers is also provided and allows the coupling losses and heat transfer. Finally the comparison of two main optimization, maximizing the power released and minimizing the creation of entropy criteria is performed at different scales, the converter, the system alone and the system in its environment. The non-equivalence of these criteria involves the use of a mixed criterion, said "ecological", combining the two objectives.
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Master thesis
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Mathilde Blaise. Reconsidération du moteur de Carnot : de la faisabilité thermodynamique à la faisabilité technique. Génie des procédés. 2013. ⟨hal-01862170⟩

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