The chromatic symmetry of twins and allotwins

Abstract : The symmetry of twins is described by chromatic point groups obtained from the intersection group H Ã of the oriented point groups of the individuals H i extended by the operations mapping different individuals. This article presents a revised list of twin point groups through the analysis of their groupoid structure, followed by the generalization to the case of allotwins. Allotwins of polytypes with the same type of point group can be described by a chromatic point group like twins. If the individuals are all differently oriented, the chromatic point group is obtained in the same way as in the case of twins; if they are mapped by symmetry operation of the individuals, the chromatic point group is neutral. If the same holds true for some but not all individuals, then the allotwin can be seen as composed of twinned regions described by a twin point group, that are then allotwinned and described by a colour identification group; the allotwin is then described by a chromatic group obtained as an extension of the former by the latter, and requires the use of extended symbols reminiscent of the extended Hermann-Mauguin symbols of space groups. In the case of allotwins of polytypes with different types of point groups, as well as incomplete (allo)twins, a chromatic point group does not reveal the full symmetry: the groupoid has to be specified instead.
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Massimo Nespolo. The chromatic symmetry of twins and allotwins. Acta Crystallographica Section A Foundations and Advances, International Union of Crystallography, 2019, 75 (3), pp.551-573. ⟨10.1107/S2053273319000664⟩. ⟨hal-02116283⟩

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