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Reduction of chlordecone environmental availability by soil amendment of biochars and activated carbons from lignocellulosic biomass

Abstract : Chlordecone (kepone or CLD) was formerly used in French West Indies as an insecticide. Despite its formal ban in 1993, high levels of this pesticide are still found in soils. As such, sequestering matrices like biochars or activated carbons (ACs) may successfully decrease the bioavailability of halogenated compounds like CLD when added to contaminated soils. The present study intends (i) to produce contrasted sequestering matrices in order to (ii) assess their respective efficiency to reduce CLD environmental availability. Hence, the work was designed following two experimental steps. The first one consisted at producing different sequestering media (biochars and ACs) via pyrolysis and distinct activation processes, using two lignocellulosic precursors (raw biomass): oak wood (Quercus ilex) and coconut shell (Cocos nucifera). The chemical activation was carried out with phosphoric acid while physical activation was done with carbon dioxide and steam. In the second step, the CLD environmental availability was assessed either in an OECD artificial soil or in an Antillean contaminated nitisol (i.e., 2.1-1μg CLD per g of soil dry matter, DM), both amended with 5 wt% of biochar or 5 wt% of AC. These both steps aim to determine CLD environmental availability reduction efficiency of these media when added (i) to a standard soil material or (ii) to a soil representative of the Antillean CLD contamination context. Textural characteristics of the derived coconut and oak biochars and ACs were determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. Mixed microporous and mesoporous textures consisting of high pore volume (ranging from 0.38 cm3.g−1 to 2.00 cm3.g−1) and specific (BET) surface areas from 299.9 m2.g−1 to 1285.1 m2.g−1 were obtained. Overall, soil amendment with biochars did not limit CLD environmental availability (environmental availability assay ISO/DIS 16751 Part B). When soil was amended with ACs, a significant reduction of the environmental availability in both artificial and natural soils was observed. AC soil amendment resulted in a reduced CLD transfer by at least 65% (P < 0.001) for all lignocellulosic matrices (excepted for coconut sample activated with steam, which displayed a 47% reduction). These features confirm that both pore structure and extent of porosity are of particular importance in the retention process of CLD in aged soil. Owing to its adsorptive properties, AC amendment of CLD-contaminated soils appears as a promising approach to reduce the pollutant transfer to fauna and biota
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Ronald Ranguin, Corine Jean-Marius, Christelle Yacou, Sarra Gaspard, Cyril Feidt, et al.. Reduction of chlordecone environmental availability by soil amendment of biochars and activated carbons from lignocellulosic biomass. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Springer Verlag, 2020, 27 (33), pp.41093-41104. ⟨10.1007/s11356-019-07366-2⟩. ⟨hal-02510064⟩



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