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Replacement Myocardial Fibrosis in Patients With Mitral Valve Prolapse: Relation to Mitral Regurgitation, Ventricular Remodeling, and Arrhythmia

Abstract : Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a frequent disease that can be complicated by mitral regurgitation (MR), heart failure, arterial embolism, rhythm disorders, and death. Left ventricular (LV) replacement myocardial fibrosis, a marker of maladaptive remodeling, has been described in patients with MVP, but the implications of this finding remain scarcely explored. We aimed at assessing the prevalence, pathophysiological and prognostic significance of LV replacement myocardial fibrosis through late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with MVP. Methods: Four hundred patients (53±15 years of age, 55% male) with MVP (trace to severe MR by echocardiography) from 2 centers, who underwent a comprehensive echocardiography and LGE cardiac magnetic resonance, were included. Correlates of replacement myocardial fibrosis (LGE+), influence of MR degree, and ventricular arrhythmia were assessed. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular events (cardiac death, heart failure, new-onset atrial fibrillation, arterial embolism, and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia). Results: Replacement myocardial fibrosis (LGE+) was observed in 110 patients (28%; 91 with myocardial wall including 71 with basal inferolateral wall, 29 with papillary muscle). LGE+ prevalence was 13% in trace-mild MR, 28% in moderate MR, and 37% in severe MR, and was associated with specific features of mitral valve apparatus, more dilated LV and more frequent ventricular arrhythmias (45% versus 26%, P <0.0001). In trace-mild MR, despite the absence of significant volume overload, abnormal LV dilatation was observed in 16% of patients and ventricular arrhythmia in 25%. Correlates of LGE+ in multivariable analysis were LV mass (odds ratio, 1.01 [95% CI, 1.002–1.017], P =0.009) and moderate-severe MR (odds ratio, 2.28 [95% CI, 1.21–4.31], P =0.011). LGE+ was associated with worse 4-year cardiovascular event–free survival (49.6±11.7 in LGE+ versus 73.3±6.5% in LGE–, P <0.0001). In a stepwise multivariable Cox model, MR volume and LGE+ (hazard ratio, 2.6 [1.4–4.9], P =0.002) were associated with poor outcome. Conclusions: LV replacement myocardial fibrosis is frequent in patients with MVP; is associated with mitral valve apparatus alteration, more dilated LV, MR grade, and ventricular arrhythmia; and is independently associated with cardiovascular events. These findings suggest an MVP-related myocardial disease. Last, cardiac magnetic resonance provides additional information to echocardiography in MVP.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 20, 2021 - 2:04:12 PM
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Anne-Laure Constant Dit Beaufils, Olivier Huttin, Antoine Jobbe-Duval, Thomas Sénage, Laura Filippetti, et al.. Replacement Myocardial Fibrosis in Patients With Mitral Valve Prolapse: Relation to Mitral Regurgitation, Ventricular Remodeling, and Arrhythmia. Circulation, American Heart Association, 2021, 143 (18), pp.1763-1774. ⟨10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050214⟩. ⟨hal-03231070⟩



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