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The severity factor as a useful tool for producing hydrochars and derived carbon materials

Abstract : The main purpose of this study was to understand the effect of time and temperature during the hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of olive stones (OS). For that purpose, the severity factor was introduced, by which the effect of the HTC conditions on the resultant products could be described. HTC was carried out at various temperatures (160, 180, 200, 220 and 240°C) and times (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) for producing 25 hydrochars. The yield to hydrochar varied from 70 to 50%. Hydrochars were all submitted to thermogravimetric and elemental analysis. The liquid fractions were also recovered and analysed in order to valorise OS as completely as possible. Thus, highly added-value products such as furfural and 5hydroxymethylfurfural were detected. At the highest temperature and time, the hydrochar elemental composition was similar to that of lignite coals. Hydrochars were further carbonised at 900°C, leading to materials with surface areas as high as 1200 m 2 g-1 and with narrow pore size distributions centred on 0.5 nm. The severity factor allowed finding clear tendencies in the production of hydrochars and derived carbons in terms of yield, composition, and surface area, which would have been hardly analysed if the effects of temperature and time had to be considered separately. We proved that the severity factor, which use is quite uncommon in studies dealing with materials production, is a valuable tool for studying the effects of HTC experimental conditions.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 9, 2022 - 5:41:39 PM
Last modification on : Friday, February 11, 2022 - 3:43:06 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Tuesday, May 10, 2022 - 7:15:01 PM

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Asma Jeder, Angela Sanchez-Sanchez, Philippe Gadonneix, Eric Masson, Abdelmottaleb Ouederni, et al.. The severity factor as a useful tool for producing hydrochars and derived carbon materials. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Springer Verlag, 2018, 25 (2), pp.1497-1507. ⟨10.1007/s11356-017-0366-7⟩. ⟨hal-03563523⟩

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