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Journal Articles Drugs Year : 2021

Hyperkalemia in Chronic Kidney Disease in the New Era of Kidney Protection Therapies

Abstract

Despite recent therapeutic advances, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the fastest growing global causes of death. This illustrates limitations of current therapeutic approaches and, potentially, unidentified knowledge gaps. For decades, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers have been the mainstay of therapy for CKD. However, they favor the development of hyperkalemia, which is already common in CKD patients due to the CKD-associated decrease in urinary potassium (K+) excretion and metabolic acidosis. Hyperkalemia may itself be life-threatening as it may trigger potentially lethal arrhythmia, and additionally may limit the prescription of RAAS blockers and lead to low-K+ diets associated to low dietary fiber intake. Indeed, hyperkalemia is associated with adverse kidney, cardiovascular, and survival outcomes. Recently, novel kidney protective therapies, ranging from sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to new mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Herein, we review K+ pathophysiology and the clinical impact and management of hyperkalemia considering these developments and the availability of the novel K+ binders patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate, recent results from clinical trials targeting metabolic acidosis (sodium bicarbonate, veverimer), and an increasing understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in health and disease.
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Dates and versions

hal-03579169 , version 1 (29-08-2022)

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José Valdivielso, Olga Balafa, Robert Ekart, Charles Ferro, Francesca Mallamaci, et al.. Hyperkalemia in Chronic Kidney Disease in the New Era of Kidney Protection Therapies. Drugs, 2021, 81 (13), pp.1467-1489. ⟨10.1007/s40265-021-01555-5⟩. ⟨hal-03579169⟩
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