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Génération, modélisation et détection des défauts d'arc électrique : application aux systèmes embarqués aéronautiques

Abstract : The arcs have been the source of several aircraft accidents by fire or serious destruction of the electrical fundamentals (eg actuators, top panel ,...) (TWA 800 in 1996 and Swiss Air Flight 11 1998). Prevent and detect constitute a significant improvement in aviation safety. Thus, although the problem has been known for a while, detection systems for avionics are very recent. In an aircraft, these defects are caused by the aging and the deterioration of the cables. To study and propose a system for arc detection, the following three phases were followed chronologically in this thesis: first, the developement of a test bench to characterize the main types of arcs (AC and DC). This system can produce arcs controlled intensity and duration depending on the mode serial, parallel, DC and AC. The initiation of arcs is obtained by overvoltage. This surge is produced by inductive switching. Second, the search for reliable electric models explaining the phenomena of arcs. We therefore propose a meta model combining the characteristics of different behavioral models and impedancemetry. This combination significantly improves the overall performance of the modeling in the circuits. Thirdly, the study of detection algorithms for implementation on an electronic circuit, small enough to be implanted in a circuit breaker. We propose and test different methods of detection.
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Jonathan Andrea. Génération, modélisation et détection des défauts d'arc électrique : application aux systèmes embarqués aéronautiques. Sciences de l'ingénieur [physics]. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011NAN10017⟩. ⟨tel-01746163⟩

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