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Fonction et modulation des canaux potassiques voltage-dépendants : étude par simulations de dynamique moléculaire

Abstract : Voltage gated ion channels (VGCs) are ubiquitous transmembrane (TM) proteins involved in electrical signaling in excitable cells. Their gating (opening-closing), triggered by changes in the TM voltage, proceeds through a sensing mechanism involving conserved positively charged residues belonging to the voltage sensor domain (VSD). Details on the function of such channels have been revealed thanks to decades of experimental investigations but questions concerning the molecular level function of these proteins still remain under active debate. Starting from the ?open state? crystal structure of the rat potassium VGC Kv1.2, we have carried out large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the channel embedded in its lipidic environment submitted to a hyperpolarized potential. This allowed to follow the deactivation of the VSD and to uncover three intermediate states between the open and closed conformations. We report gating charge calculations or else state dependent molecular contacts that comply with experimental results and propose accordingly a model of the entire deactivation that conciliates the diverging views proposed so far. Using this model, we further characterize at the molecular level the modulation mechanisms of VGCs: specific mutations of basic residues of the VSD involved in genetic diseases are shown to induce state-dependent "omega" leak currents, in agreement with electrophysiology and a partial conclusion is proposed to explain the alteration of VGC voltage-dependency when the lipids embedding them are chemically modified. We conclude by extending this study to human VGCs (Kv7 family) of physiological relevance.
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Lucie Delemotte. Fonction et modulation des canaux potassiques voltage-dépendants : étude par simulations de dynamique moléculaire. Autre. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011NAN10067⟩. ⟨tel-01746211⟩

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