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Déterminants génétiques du métabolisme des monocarbones : approche gène candidat dans deux populations ambulatoires et étude d'association avec la maladie de Crohn

Abstract : Genome wide association studies demonstrated an association between plasma vitamin B12 and FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2). It has been suggested that the association between FUT2 and low plasma vitamin B12 level may be the consequence of an increased susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. We evaluated the association between FUT2 461G>A polymorphism and vitamin B12 and investigated whether the influence of FUT2 on H. pylori serology is part of the mechanisms that underlie this association, in two populations from Europe and West Africa. In this study we confirmed the influence of FUT2 461 G>A polymorphism on plasma vitamin B12 level and found no influence of H. pylori serological status on this association, at least in ambulatory subjects from Europe and West Africa. The magnitude of the association between homocysteine metabolism and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is unknown while the association between hyperhomocysteinemia and thrombosis remains controversial in IBD. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and performed a meta-analysis to examine these issues. The risk of hyperhomocysteinemia is significantly higher in IBD patients when compared to controls. The risk assessment of hyperhomocysteinemia-related thrombosis in IBD requires further investigation. Deficient folate status is associated with a higher impact of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on IBD risk. Hyperhomocysteinemia and several gene variants of one-carbon metabolism are associated with the occurrence and severity of Crohn's disease (CD). Hyperhomocysteinemia results in part from methyl donors deficiency - which is frequent in patients with CD - and increases the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), a validated and reliable marker of oxidative stress. We designed a 384-plex GoldenGate oligo pool assay for the comprehensive one-carbon metabolism genotyping using Illumina platform. The aims of this study were (i) to assess genetic determinants of plasma homocysteine and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in patients with IBD and (ii) to look for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with age at CD onset. Two SNPs were associated with plasma homocysteine level (MTHFR, AHCY). Five SNPs were independently associated with plasma SOD level. Of these five SNPs, three are related to vitamin B12 (FUT2, CUBN, and TCN2), one is related to folate (GGH), and the last one to homocysteine (AHCY). In addition, we identified two SNPs associated with early CD onset (CHDH, ABCB1)
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  • HAL Id : tel-01746245, version 1

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Abderrahim Oussalah. Déterminants génétiques du métabolisme des monocarbones : approche gène candidat dans deux populations ambulatoires et étude d'association avec la maladie de Crohn. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011NAN10088⟩. ⟨tel-01746245⟩

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