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Etude en microcosmes de l'effet du ray-grass et de ses exsudats racinaires sur la dissipation des HAP et les communautés bactériennes dégradantes

Abstract : Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are organics pollutants, ubiquitous, toxics and potentially carcinogenic. In soil, PAH degradation is mainly attributed to microbial organism. Several studies have thus reported enhanced PAH degradation in soil in the presence of plants. Rhizospheric soil increase the number et the activity of microorganisms in soil by the release of roots exudates. However, bene?cial effects of plants in the remediation are not always observed and roots exudates could be limited PAH biodegradation. The object of this study was to investigate the fate of PAHs in rhizosphere, following (i) the PAH-dioxygenase genes DNA to quantify the PAH-degrading bacteria, (ii) species implicated in phenanthrene biodegradation, and (iii) PAH availability and biodegradation from industrial soils. Different experimental devices have been designed to study detailed processes in the rhizosphere. First is a compartments devices were a nylon mesh permits diffusion of plant soluble substances towards the adjacent root free compartment as a rhizosphere. Secondly microcosms were enriched with natural roots exudates from hydroponic culture of ray-grass (Lolium perenne L.). In first time, experiments were conducted using sand and bacterial inoculum from an industrially PAH-contaminated soil and then directly with a soil historically contaminated by PAH. The Real-Time PCR quantification of 16S rRNA gene copy and of functional PAH-RHD? genes permitted to assess the proportion of a degrading bacteria. Bacterial community structure was approached from Temporal Thermal Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) fingerprinting, and bands sequencing. Nonexhaustive cyclodextrin-based extraction technique provided a estimate of the ?labile? or available pool of PAH in soil. Use of stable isotope probing (SIP) technique with [13C]phenanthrene allowed a bacterial identification of directly implicated in industrial soil. The presence of exudates modified microbial community of PAH-degrading bacteria. SIP experiment showed that 13C-labelled PHE-degrading bacteria was different depending on the exudates input. Many species having to degrade phenanthrene were able to use exudates. Presence of root exudates increased the proportion of PAH-RHD? genes compared to the bulk soil at the beginning and in microcosms without exudates (respectively 10% and 1 %). However, phenanthene dissipation in sand or soil were weaker with root exudates and aged PAH concentrations has not shifted during incubation time. Nevertheless, the root exudates increased the PAH labile fraction extract with cyclodextrin solution into two in three soils historically contaminated
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Brice Louvel. Etude en microcosmes de l'effet du ray-grass et de ses exsudats racinaires sur la dissipation des HAP et les communautés bactériennes dégradantes. Autre. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN10113⟩. ⟨tel-01746348⟩

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