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Précision et hiérarchie des afférences sensorielles dans la fonction d'équilibration selon l'âge, les pathologies et la pratique sportive

Abstract : Balance control requires the central Integration of different types of neurosensorial information (visual, vestibular, proprioceptive and exteroceptive) to generate an adequate motor response according to the task to perform and the environmental context. These neurosensorial afferences, the contribution of which can be modified through ageing, combine to provide information about the position of each body component in relation to another, about the subject's position in relation to the environment and about the environment itself. Some pathologies can also modify the weight of these neurosensorial inputs in balance control, which may therefore be optimal or altered. The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether such disorders as idiopathic scoliosis or ageing, known in the literature to have some important or dramatic consequences on posture control, modify the contribution of the different cues of balance. It had also to the objective of specifying how the practice of physical and sporting activities, known in the literature to increase the quality of equilibrium, may allows to rely on the relevant afferent. One hundred and two adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and 65 elderly subjects (>60 years) were submitted to different posturographic examinations assessing the contribution and cooperation of all neurosensorial inputs. Such a pathology as idiopathic scoliosis was shown to alter variably the quality of balance control depending on the type of scoliosis and position of the major and compensatory curves.This could be the result of a lesser or asymetric sensitivity of the vestibule, especially for high single major scoliosis, in which compensatory curves cannot coordinate the axis of the skull with that of the body. Ageing was demonstrated also to impair balance control, by decreasing the contribution of proprioception and increasing the weight of the visual afferent. A good selected practice of physical and sporting activities appeared able to improve the weight of relevant inputs, especially proprioception. The contribution of neurosensorial afferences in postural control therefore was confirmed not to be a stiff system, but a plastic structure liable to be modified in order to allow the individual to rely on more reliable inputs and increase their accuracy.
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http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/prive/SCD_T_2000_0237_GAUCHARD.pdf
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 10:43:58 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, January 7, 2021 - 11:47:46 AM

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Gérome Gauchard. Précision et hiérarchie des afférences sensorielles dans la fonction d'équilibration selon l'âge, les pathologies et la pratique sportive. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2000. Français. ⟨NNT : 2000NAN10237⟩. ⟨tel-01746744⟩

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