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Etudes comparatives de la structure génétique des plantes

Abstract : The level and the organisation of species genetic diversity are controlled for by mutation, selection, migration and drift. The respective role of these forces is influenced by ecological species traits, inheritance of their genome as well as by historical factors. Understanding the contribution of each of these factors on genetic structure necessitate a comparative framework that control for phylogenetic relatedness of the species. Dealing with phylogenetic controlled comparative method we had first study the evolution of organelle genomes, and its relationships with molecular and biological characteristics of the studied species. Many relationships were demonstrated and interpreted in the light of two different models of molecular evolution: (i) a nearly-neutral model, and (ii) a model of deletional bias. We had, in a second part, compiled plant genetic structure studies based on uniparental (chloroplast and mitochondria) and on biparental (nuclear) markers. The resulting database was then used to (i) study the influence of genome inheritance on the precision of the measure of the genetic structure, (ii) study the relationships between life history traits of the species and the way they partition genetic diversity. Finally, we had studied the repartition of genetic structure in a complex of tropical tree species: Carapa procera/guianensis. Difficulties in morphological recognition of these species were overlapped using genetic identification and a contrasted genetic structure between both species was demonstrated indicating differences in their seed migration abilities.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 10:47:23 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01746908, version 1



Jérôme Duminil. Etudes comparatives de la structure génétique des plantes. Biologie végétale. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2006. Français. ⟨NNT : 2006NAN10009⟩. ⟨tel-01746908⟩



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