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Etude spectroscopique en conditions hydrodynamiques contrôlées du transfert des espèces organiques à l'interface minéral / solution

Abstract : The present work contributes to identify the physico-chemical mechanisms controlling the transfer of organic solutes at the interface between an aqueous solution and a mineral assemblage such as sand-iron oxide similar to naturally occurring iron bearing minerals in soils. In parallel, the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on the transfer let to determine under which conditions adsorption constants obtained from batch are suitable to describe reactive transport in porous media. We synthesized in this study some mineral materials based on the association of one sand and one iron oxide, either goethite or hematite, respectively by precipitation (GCS, Goethite Coated Sand) or by deposition on sand (HCS, Hematite Coated Sand). According to the infrared study of GCS, the hydroxyl groups of quartz surface are involved in the iron oxide-coating and Raman spectra show that oxides apply mechanical strain on crystalline lattice of quartz. These findings justify the strong adhesion of the iron oxide on the quartz support. Experiments to study adsorption of salicylate and gentisate were conducted in batch in order to understand and modelize kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of each reaction. For column experiments, the hydrodynamic parameters (porosity, dispersivity, Peclet number) were deduced from a non-reactive tracer experiment before the breakthrough curves of organic compounds were recorded. Macroscopic sorption data from batch and column were confronted to molecular information provided by Raman end infrared spectra recorded after sorption to clarify the most likely structure of surface complex in each case. Salicylate sorbed onto GCS forms a mononuclear bidentate structure (chelate), both in batch and in column: one carboxylic oxygen and the ortho phenolic oxygen bind one iron atom of the goethite surface. Whatever the flow rate is, the breakthrough curves of salicylate through GCS display two stages. This behaviour can be explained by an effect of pH that changes during the adsorption and mostly by the displacement of an adsorption equilibrium. Indeed some reactive surface sites on GCS are initially occupied by silicates and salicylate puts them back to solution when replacing them. Calculations based on this hypothesis agree with experimental data. This singularity of salicylate compared to gentisate is due to sorption properties of salicylate towards GCS assemblage. For both molecules, adsorbed amounts at equilibrium are equal in batch and in column and breakthrough curves do not depend very much on the flow rate, indicating that local thermodynamic equilibrium is achieved in column. On HCS, the amount of gentisate or salicylate sorbed in batch is much higher than that retained in column. This behaviour independent of the molecule is typical of non-equilibrium and may be a characteristic of HCS system (nanohematite on quartz) in column. In prospect, these explanations could be refined by developing in situ vibrational spectroscopies to supervise the adsorption process in real time and without disturbing the system: in situ backscattering Raman spectra at different positions alongside the column and/or attenuated total reflexion infrared spectra by using an optical fiber installed in the column.
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Benoît Rusch. Etude spectroscopique en conditions hydrodynamiques contrôlées du transfert des espèces organiques à l'interface minéral / solution. Autre. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN10028⟩. ⟨tel-01748209⟩

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