Activation of a silent type I polyketide synthase gene cluster in Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 : isolation and characterization of a novel giant macrolide

Abstract : The constant and urgent need of novel bioactive compounds is the result of the emergence in the last decades of new and old infectious diseases, a sore for humankind. Actinomycetes and especially the genus Streptomyces are the principal producers of microbial drugs producing nearly 60-70% of the natural products. The majority of secondary metabolites belong to the class of polyketides that are synthesised by multienzymatic complexes named polyketides synthases (PKS). PKSs condensate simple small carboxylic acids to generate a wide range of complex polyketide structures. In the search for new drugs, the genome mining approach proved to be a powerful tool in the identification of cryptic secondary metabolite pathways. The sequencing and the analysis of Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 genome has revealed a large type I PKS cluster, on the right arm of the chromosome. The cluster contains 9 PKS, composed of 25 functional modules. In silico analysis of the PKS genes and of the tailoring genes enabled to predict the structure of the expected metabolite, a macrolide. In the laboratory standard conditions, the cluster showed to be silent. Therefore, to promote the expression of the cluster, the regulatory gene samR0484, encoding a LAL regulator (Large ATP binding protein of the LuxR family) was overexpressed in the wt strain. Transcriptional analyses showed that the PKS genes were expressed. Subsequently, by comparative metabolic profiling between the mutant strain and the wt, we were able to detect the novel metabolite produced by S. ambofaciens. Structural elucidation revealed four form of a 50-membered macrolide, named sambomycin. The compounds endow antibacterial and antitumoral activities. The structure unveiled unique and interesting characteristics of sambomycin, i.e. the cyclization reaction and the presence of an atypical extender unit. The mechanisms of biosynthesis have been analysed more in details in this work. We also investigated in the regulation of the cluster. The LAL regulator was shown to be an essential transcriptional activator, binding to the promoter regions of the PKS genes and probably to other genes in the cluster.
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Luisa Laureti. Activation of a silent type I polyketide synthase gene cluster in Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 : isolation and characterization of a novel giant macrolide. Genomics [q-bio.GN]. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2010. English. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN10001⟩. ⟨tel-01748223⟩

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