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Aspects cliniques et épidémiologiques des infections à virus de l'hépatite B en République Centrafricaine

Abstract : Hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains have been classified into eight genotypes A to H. Recent studies have shown that the HBV genotype E (HBV/E) predominates in a vast crescent spanning from Senegal to Angola. The Central African Republic (CAR) is an endemic country for HBV infection and prevalence of chronic infection in adults is estimated to be about 15.4%. A survey of 196 patients attending local hospital with symptoms of hepatitis has permitted to obtain 66 complete or partial sequences of HBV DNA. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that 62 strains belonged to Genotype E while one was of genotype A1, and three of genotype D. One strain presented a recombination between genotypes E and D. Genotype E is thus predominant in RCA as in most Sub-Saharan countries. The variability of strains is limited not only among CAR strains but when all strains isolated so far are compared (1.67 %), suggesting a recent introduction of HBV in the human species with a rapid expansion. A simian origin of the genotype E is possible considering the DNA sequence identities with chimpanzee HBV DNA. The second part of this study is a clinical and biological survey of 68 patients attending the "Hôpital de l'Amitié" of Bangui for a suspicion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). All the patients (100 %) have been infected by HBV. Echography confirmed the suspicion of HCC in 43 patients and cytopathology ascertained the diagnosis for 14 patients for whom cytoponction was feasible. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was present in 10 of these 43 patients, of whom 7 were co-infected with HDV. The average level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was 10394 UI/mL. For the 25 other patients, HBsAg was detected in 21 of whom 11 were co-infected with HDV. Low level of AFP was observed (mean: 9UI/mL). This study shows that HBV related HCC is common in the country and that patients come to hospital late in the evolution of this disease. This study also confirms the association between HBV and HCC in CAR. HDV is associated with severe symptoms of hepatitis B. Serum and HCC lesions samples will be used to study variability of X gene and its relation with HCC.
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Claudine Bekondi. Aspects cliniques et épidémiologiques des infections à virus de l'hépatite B en République Centrafricaine. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008NAN10129⟩. ⟨tel-01748381⟩

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