Études structurales et fonctionnelles des UDP-glucuronosyltransférases humaines de la Famille 1A

Abstract : The human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A6 is the primary phenol-metabolizing UGT isoform. It catalyzes the nucleophilic attack of phenolic xenobiotics on UDP-glucuronic acid, leading to the formation of water-soluble glucuronides. The catalytic mechanism proposed for this reaction is an acid-base mechanism that involves an aspartic/glutamic acid and/or histidine residue. Here, we investigated the role of fifteen highly conserved aspartic/glutamic acid residues over the entire sequence of human UGT1A6 by site-directed mutagenesis. We showed that, except for aspartic residues D150 and D488, the substitution of carboxylic residues by alanine led to active mutants but with decreased enzyme activity and lower affinity for acceptor and/or donor substrate. Further analysis including mutation of the corresponding residue in other UGT1A isoforms suggests that D150 play a major catalytic role. In this report, we also identified a single active site residue important for glucuronidation of phenols and carboxylic acid substrates by UGT1A enzyme family. Replacing P40 of UGT1A4 by histidine expanded the glucuronidation activity of the enzyme to phenolic and carboxylic compounds, therefore leading to UGT1A3-type isoform in terms of substrate specificity. Conversely, when H40 residue of UGT1A3 was replaced with proline, the substrate specificity shifted toward that of UGT1A4 with loss of glucuronidation of phenolic substrates. Furthermore, mutation of H39 residue of UGT1A1 (H40 in UGT1A4) to proline led to loss of glucuronidation of phenols but not of estrogens. This study provides a step forward to better understand the glucuronidation mechanism and substrates recognition, which is invaluable for a better prediction of drug metabolism and toxicity in human. In the last part of the work, we determined the UGT isoforms that are expressed in human articular chondrocytes, and which are involved in the glucuronidation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and estrogens known to affect cartilage homeostasy. The results showed that several isoforms were indeed expressed as a transcript, but at a very low level, making the characterisation of the enzyme via their activity or immunodosage unsuccessful.
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Dong Li. Études structurales et fonctionnelles des UDP-glucuronosyltransférases humaines de la Famille 1A. Sciences agricoles. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008NAN10060⟩. ⟨tel-01748446⟩

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