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Neurotoxicité sur la fonction d'équilibration d'une exposition chronique aux solvants

Abstract : Occupational and chronic exposure to organic solvents is a public health problem. However, there is limited knowledge of effects on equilibrium function after this exposure. The aim of this study was to identify predictive signs of neurotoxic alterations due to a chronic and subchronic exposure to certain organic solvents below the threshold limit value. Thus, the sensorial organisation and the postural and gaze control have been evaluated by posturography and videonystagmography in chronically exposed workers. A first study exposed - non-exposed, was carried out in the university hospital of Nancy, has shown that chronic exposure, mainly to toluene and ethanol, altered on the one hand, quality of balance control specifically during sensorial conflict situations managed by vestibular information, and, on the other hand, saccadic reaction time. These results suggest an alteration of the cortical and subcortical structures involved in postural and gaze control. A second study exposed - non-exposed, was carried out in Sfax (Tunisia), has shown that chronic and subchronic exposure, mainly to n-hexane and toluene, generated neurotoxic predictive effects on balance control, which was evaluated on a posturography ambulatory platform. Thus, balance control was lower in chronically exposed workers, and got worse after subchronic exposure, particularly during conflict situations where vestibular information was important. These results suggest an alteration of the cortical and subcortical structures and vestibular pathway involved in balance control. Balance control performance during sensorial conflict situations could be considerate as a predictive indicator of neurotoxicity induced by an exposure to solvents and to other chemical substances, evaluated by posturography which is a discriminating and not-invasive method.
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Guillaume Herpin. Neurotoxicité sur la fonction d'équilibration d'une exposition chronique aux solvants. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008NAN10065⟩. ⟨tel-01748449⟩

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