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Contribution à l'étude de la résistance chimique et mécanique des matériaux métalliques, (acier T91 9%Cr1%Mo en masse) en environnements complexes dans les réacteurs nucléaires : Corrosion et protection en présence de l'eutectique Plomb-Bismuth liquide ; Etude thermodynamique du système Pb-Bi-Hg-Fe-O

Abstract : The development of sub-critical nuclear reactors (Accelerator Driven System - ADS), intrinsically safe to incinerate nuclear waste by transmutation of long-lived actinides to radionuclides with a shorter existence, requires intense sources of neutrons. These sources are produced by the "ejected" spallation technique, i.e. the interaction of a high energy, high intensity proton beam with a target containing heavy metals. Considering the power of the proton beam transferred to the target (of a few MW), only metals in the liquid form can be cooled in a closed cooling system and resist to nuclear reactor induced by the proton beam. In this context, the MEGAPIE project (MEGawatt PIlot Experiment), which works with a window at the spallation target, is pioneer and opens the way for high-power targets. The choice of the alloy for the MEGAPIE spallation target is a lead-bismuth eutectic, which is efficient for producing neutrons. For the window beam and hot parts, the best choice at present is the T91 steel (1%Mo9%Cr in mass), due to its good irradiation resistance. For cold parts, the 316L steel was chosen. However, the contact of the two alloys (eutectic lead-bismuth and T91 steel) presents some inconveniences that need to be investigated in relation to their physico-chemical properties in the MEGAPIE environment, which motivates this study. The contribution of this work to this subject consisted of : - In a part, the development of coatings designed to improve the chemical and mechanical performances of the T91 steel in contact of the lead-bismuth eutectic liquid alloy, - In another part, the investigation of the thermodynamic properties of the Pb-Bi-(Hg)-Fe-Cr-Al-O system for all phase equilibria within the conditions imposed by the operation of the ADS reactor. The second part of this work is justified by the results, which, for the first time, highlight the role played by the mixed oxide phases in the corrosive interaction between the T91 steel and Pb-Bi eutectic, in a poorly oxygenated environment.
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Ibra Diop. Contribution à l'étude de la résistance chimique et mécanique des matériaux métalliques, (acier T91 9%Cr1%Mo en masse) en environnements complexes dans les réacteurs nucléaires : Corrosion et protection en présence de l'eutectique Plomb-Bismuth liquide ; Etude thermodynamique du système Pb-Bi-Hg-Fe-O. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008NAN10115⟩. ⟨tel-01748471⟩

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