Rôle de champignons mycorhiziens à arbuscules dans le transfert du cadmium (Cd) du sol à la luzerne (Medicago truncatula)

Abstract : Accumulation of trace metals, such as cadmium (Cd), in soils and their transfer to plants are serious environmental problems because of their acute toxicity. Metal mobility in soil depends on various abiotic and biotic factors. Among them, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known to influence metal transfer by transporting metals to roots and also by improving plant growth. However, diverging results were reported and the global role of AM fungi thus needed more investigation. The influence of an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices) on Cd uptake and transfer to leachates was studied with Medicago truncatula as a host plant. Experiments were performed in pot cultures and in compartmented devices. The dynamic of Cd in the soil-plant system was indirectly influenced by the fungus via a strong increase of plant biomass, in interaction with nodulating rhizobacteria, leading to a higher total quantity of Cd transferred to shoots although Cd plant concentration was lower than in non mycorrhizal plants. This fungal influence was complex, and was variable according to soil conditions and to the fungal isolate studied. The AM fungus also contributed directly to Cd transfer thanks to its sorption capacity and its ability to transport soluble-exchangeable Cd via the extraradical mycelium, but this direct contribution seemed to be low as compared to the influence of roots.
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Paul-Olivier Redon. Rôle de champignons mycorhiziens à arbuscules dans le transfert du cadmium (Cd) du sol à la luzerne (Medicago truncatula). Sciences agricoles. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009NAN10015⟩. ⟨tel-01748490⟩

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