Pollution atmosphérique dans la vallée de l'Arc (Maurienne, Savoie) : Nouvelles approches en biosurveillance végétale

Abstract : The Maurienne is subjected to a heavy traffic of lories and cars crossing the Alps through the Frejus tunnel. Atmospheric pollution depending on traffic has been studied using a dense net of biological and chemical sensors. The adhesive properties of plant cuticles of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra and Picea abies were used for spatio-temporal analyses of emitted particles. Elementary composition of deposits was determined using SEM and Xray spectrometry. Analyses were focused on P and traffic tracers (Al, Ti, Fe). Results show that traffic particles can be transported as far as 300 m from the roads and highways while Phosphorus was detected at some kilometers from the factory. The poaceae Molinia caerulea was used for nitrogen pollution study. Leaf growth and nitrogen content were related to NOx levels and traffic density. Moreover, nitrogen isotopic composition (d15N) of leaves depend on exposure to traffic related nitrogen oxides. Taken altogether, results show that Molinia can be used as a nitrogen bioindicator and give information on the potential impact on mountain ecosystems in the vicinity of main roads and motorways. Both biological (tobacco Bel-W3) and chemical methods were used for determination of levels and distribution of tropospheric ozone in the Maurienne valley in 2004 and 2005. Results confirm the usefulness of both biological and chemical approachs for ozone levels determination at low altitudes. However, a sensitivity loss of ozone sensitive tobacco plants in hard mountainous conditions was characterized, limiting its use under 1000 m. This approach by the simultaneous use of several techniques and a dense network of stations give a realistic picture of the atmospheric pollution in a mountain valley and its potential impacts on forest ecosystems.
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Xavier Laffray. Pollution atmosphérique dans la vallée de l'Arc (Maurienne, Savoie) : Nouvelles approches en biosurveillance végétale. Sciences agricoles. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008NAN10097⟩. ⟨tel-01748538⟩

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