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Validation d'un test de mesure de bioaccessibilité : application à quatre éléments traces métalliques dans les sols : As, Cd, Pb et Sb

Abstract : The management of contaminated soil is based on the assessment of exposure of pollutants. The review shows that the direct routes of exposure, including soil ingestion for children, generate the highest risk levels. Currently, based on the total pollutant concentration in soil, risk assessment tends to be overestimate because only a fraction of the substance may penetrate into the body. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that in vitro UBM test (Unified Method Barge) is relevant to estimate the bioavailable fraction of metals in the soil by estimating the bioaccessible fraction. For this, it is necessary to show that the solubilization of contaminants in the gastrointestinal tract is a limiting step in oral bioavailability process and that bioaccessibility is correlated to bioavailability. For 15 soils selected on three different sites, the study shows that bioavailability is highly variable for lead (8% to 82%), cadmium (12% to 91%) and arsenic (3 % to 78%). For antimony, the relative bioavailability and bioaccessibility values are very low independently of the different soil characteristics (values <20%). Thus, these conditions do not allow to validate in vitro test for antimony. The results of correlations, for the three other contaminants, show that bioaccessibility is the limiting step in the bioavailability process and that UBM test is relevant to estimate the bioaccessibility. Our study also highlights the impact of the soil matrix on the variation of bioaccessibility values. Thus, it was shown that the distribution of contaminants in the different bearing phases of soil is a major and robust parameter to explain the variations of bioaccessibility for all soils studied. The results of the study highlight that the in vitro UBM test is a promising alternative to in vivo investigations to measure the exposure levels of metals after soil ingestion
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Julien Caboche. Validation d'un test de mesure de bioaccessibilité : application à quatre éléments traces métalliques dans les sols : As, Cd, Pb et Sb. Sciences agricoles. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009INPL049N⟩. ⟨tel-01748723⟩

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