Composition isotopique de l'oxygène et du silicium des cherts Précambriens : implications Paléo-environnementales

Abstract : Cherts, which are siliceous rocks, are considered as possible proxies of paleo-environmental conditions of the Early Earth. These rocks contain various forms of quartz, microquartz being the predominant one. The study of oxygen and silicon isotopic composition in the various forms of silica in cherts of different ages, from 3,5 Ga to 1,9 Ga, allowed to better understand the origin and the formation of these rocks and allowed to try to reconstruct paleo-temperatures for Precambrian seawater. Isotopic measurements were obtained with the ims 1270 multicollector ion microprobe with a precision better than 0,2 for [delta]18O and of 0,3 for [delta]30Si. These analyses were combined with the measurement of traces elements concentrations (B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) with the ims 3f ion microprobe, with a petrographical study of microquartz and with the study of fluid inclusions in quartz veins. The major result is the existence at a micrometer scale of a large range of variations for [delta]18O (between 1 to 14) and [delta]30Si (between 2 to 5). In the Gunflint cherts, the range of [delta]18O variation has been interpreted as due to diagenesis and has been used to reconstruct oceanic paleo-temperatures. The calculated temperatures range from +37°C to +52°C, suggesting an hot ocean during the Precambrian era if Gunflint cherts are representative of global environmental conditions. The [delta]30Si variations associated with that of trace elements concentrations allow to constrain the various origins of these cherts. The effect of fluid circulations on the isotopic compositions has been characterized by [delta]18O and [delta]30Si analyses and by fluid inclusions study. It is shown that in some cases the [delta]18O value of microquartz can be totally re-equilibrated with the hydrothermal or metamorphic fluids. The approach developed in this thesis will be decisive in future studies of Archean cherts for paleotemperature reconstructions
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Johanna Marin. Composition isotopique de l'oxygène et du silicium des cherts Précambriens : implications Paléo-environnementales. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009INPL086N⟩. ⟨tel-01748777⟩

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