Bioindicateurs métaboliques de l'exposition des ruminants laitiers aux Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques (HAP) : domaines scientifiques : biochimie, métabolisme des xénobiotiques, biologie animale

Abstract : Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic pollutants (POP) produced during the incomplete burning of organic materials. Their production can be of natural origin (forest fire) or anthropic origin (gaz heating, vehicular traffic, industry). The ingestion of PAH contaminated vegetal covers or soils by farm animals, coupled with the high lipophily of these PAH, therefore represents a potential hazard in terms of contamination of animal products (milk, meat, eggs). In the present work, we focused on the evaluation of the dairy ruminant exposure to PAH through the use of metabolic biomarkers of exposure. At first we tested the potential of 1-hydroxypyrene excreted in urine or milk to be used as a metabolic and specific biomarker of subchronic (7 to 40 days) and oral exposure of the goat to a ternary mixture consisting of phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene. Each PAH was solubilized in oil to reach contamination levels in the range 0.04-50 mg/day. Results demonstrate that (i) 1-hydroxypyrene excretion in milk and urine is proportional to the level of exposure all along the tested exposure range (stable transfer rates of 1-OH pyrene: about 1% in milk and 10 % in urine); (ii) excretion of 1-OH pyrene reached a plateau at the latest 10 days after the beginning of exposure. In the second part of this work, it was demonstrated that the ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity, when measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), can be used as a convenient and non-specific biomarker of oral and chronic exposure of dairy ruminant to CYP 450 inducting POP, such as many PAH. Induction kinetic of EROD activity PBL could be fitted with a logistic-like model over 40 days of exposure followed by 10 days post-exposure. An approximate dose/response curve could be fitted using a Michaelis-Menten-like model, allowing for several comments about the metabolism of PAH in dairy ruminant. A final kinetic study, which was run on rats under subchronic conditions (32 days), next to other results, showed a good correlation between EROD activities in PBL, liver and brain. Achieved results demonstrate the relevance of the combined use of the EROD activity in PBL and of the 1-OH pyrene in milk or urine as convenient and cost-limited tools for risk assessment in terms of PAH and more generally POP ingestion by dairy ruminants
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Abir Chahin. Bioindicateurs métaboliques de l'exposition des ruminants laitiers aux Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques (HAP) : domaines scientifiques : biochimie, métabolisme des xénobiotiques, biologie animale. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010INPL031N⟩. ⟨tel-01748828⟩

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