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Pesticides et polyculture d'étang : de l'épandage sur le bassin versant aux résidus dans la chair de poisson

Abstract : Dam pond is connected to its watershed. Use of pesticides on watershed may lead to dissipation in the environment Transfer of registered pesticides remains poorly studied. Thus, the main objective of this work was to improve knowledge about the fate of pesticides in polyculture pond, especially contamination of fish flesh. Five sites, each site corresponding to a pond and its watershed, were characterized. They are placed on a gradient of crop proportion ranging from 0% to 85% of the watershed area. The sum of quantified molecules in water ranged from 0.17 to 8.81 µg / L. The biological response of fish, assessed by evaluation of eight biomarkers (EROD, CYP 3A, GST, CAT, SOD, GSH, GPx, and AChE), establish differences between species and sites studied. A study of 14 targeted pesticides was conducted by a multi-residues method in water, sediments and fish flesh. Isoproturon (maximum value 2.69 µg/L) and metazachlor (maximum value 0.54 µg/L) are the main contaminants in water; Trifluralin (0.5 to 13 µg/kg PS) and isoproturon (0.7 to 56.4 µg/kg PS) in sediments. Trifluralin, isoproturon, carbendazim and metazachlor (maximum values of 21, 0.75, 0.13 and 0.2 µg/kg PF, respectively) are quantified in muscle of fish. Low levels observed in fish can be explained by a low potential to bioaccumulate (measured ex-situ for some molecules, between 10-6 and 10-3). However, half-lives in the muscle may be several weeks depending, explaining the possibility to find molecules in fish flesh. Finally, many factors, particularly related to site characteristics (uncontrollable) and management practices (upgradable), influence profile of pesticides in muscle and biological responses of fish
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  • HAL Id : tel-01748845, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 41022

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Angélique Lazartigues. Pesticides et polyculture d'étang : de l'épandage sur le bassin versant aux résidus dans la chair de poisson. Sciences agricoles. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010INPL073N⟩. ⟨tel-01748845⟩

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