Littérature et aliénisme : poétique romanesque de l'Asile (1870-1914)

Abstract : In the XIXth century, the perception of madness goes through significant evolutions : therapeutic methods are determined, an architectural plan is settled, specialists of madness are appointed, a law is promulgated. The asylum, place of madness, inevitably undergoes these evolutions, and becomes culture free scenes : people visit it, the novelists invest it. At the crossroad of collective imagination and the works of the alienists, the explorations of the literature in the asylum multiply. Through a varied corpus, this thesis deals with the question of novelists developing a poetical representation of the asylum between 1870 and 1914. It will expound how this poetics takes shape in the common sense and in the literary work, from a cultural and scientific substratum which personal requirements and work of scriptural construction will modify as novels come out. Thus, the aesthetics of the asylum?s landscape is drawing out of the descriptions of the place, the symbols attached to it, and the representation of those who live in it, but also of those who work there. A typology of the Asylum shows itself then, defined by a series of paradigms, as well as a taxonomy of the madman and the alienist, and their respective speeches. A writing of the asylum appears through the stylistic and rhetoric study of these elements, and the poetics arise from the tension between clichés and the singularity of the writing. The ?asylum? will thus be ?Asylum? in the novels.
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Julie Froudière. Littérature et aliénisme : poétique romanesque de l'Asile (1870-1914). Littératures. Université Nancy 2, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN21011⟩. ⟨tel-01748900⟩

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