Effets des contraintes mécaniques cycliques sur la génération de thrombine à la surface des cellules musculaires lisses de rat

Abstract : Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), the main cellular components of the arterial wall, are constantly exposed to mechanical stretch. Cyclic mechanical stress regulates many functions of vascular SMC via integrins. Among the integrins, [alpha]v[gamma]3 is not only a mechanotransducer but also the receptor of prothrombin in the vascular SMC. Activation of integrin [alpha]v[gamma]3 by mechanical stretch may promote SMC adhesion to prothrombin and also accelerate thrombin generation on the surface of SMC. To test this hypothesis, we have studied the effect of mechanical stretch on the generation of thrombin by SMC and identified possible signaling pathway involved. We used a Flexcell model using rat aortic SMC subjected to cyclic stretch (10%, 1Hz). Exposure to cyclic stretch for 1h and 6h induced a phenotype of differentiation and non-apoptosis of SMC and an increased expression of integrin [alpha]v[gamma]3. There was also an increase in phosphorylation of Src, FAK, and AKT in a time dependent manner, increased phosphorylation of ILK at 15min and the cleavage of talin from 5 to 60min. Cyclic stretch increased the adhesion of prothrombin to the SMC, and thrombin generation with a maximum effect of 67% and 30% respectively. A peptide mimetic of integrin [alpha]v[gamma]3 (cRGDPV) and [alpha]v siRNA both blocked all the effects of cyclic stretch on SMC. A talin siRNA inhibited the expression of [alpha]v and the phosphorylation of Src, AKT and ILK. An ILK siRNA has no effect on the expression of [alpha]v but inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and the cleavage of talin at 6h of stretch. Thus, cyclic stretch induced a higher thrombin generation by vascular SMC via activation of signaling pathways dependant on [alpha]v[gamma]3. This study suggests that intravascular thrombin generation can be regulated by antagonists of integrin [alpha]v[gamma]3 and can become a new therapeutic target for the patients with a high pulse pressure
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Xianquing Mao. Effets des contraintes mécaniques cycliques sur la génération de thrombine à la surface des cellules musculaires lisses de rat. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0003⟩. ⟨tel-01749150⟩

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