Étude des systèmes de défenses antitoxiques chez l'amphipode "Gammarus roeseli": effets du parasitisme et d'une exposition au cadmium

Abstract : To cope with environmental disturbances, organisms have developed antitoxic defenses commonly used as biomarkers in environmental risk assessment. However, many confounding factors such as temperature and gender could influence biomarker responses. It seems hence necessary to investigate their effects, in order to attribute biological responses only to pollutants. In this context, we investigated the influence of parasitism by studying the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus, horizontally transmitted, and microsporidia parasites, vertically transmitted, on the physiological responses of their common host, the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli, a classical model used in ecotoxicology. We investigated the glutathione, a tripeptide having a key role in antitoxic systems, its synthesis (i.e. gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase activity), energy reserves (i.e. lipids, glycogen, proteins) and a toxicity biomarker, the malondialdehyde. The influence of parasitism was considered in different studies: (i) in G. roeseli infected by P. minutus only, (ii) in G. roeseli infected by microsporidia (mainly Dictyocoela roeselum) and (iii) in G. roeseli coinfected by both parasites. Each study was carried out in absence of pollutants and under cadmium stress. We highlighted that, in the absence of contamination, only P. minutus and the co-infection affect the G. roeseli biomarker assessments. After cadmium exposure, the presence of parasites (i.e. single infection or co-infection) influences the mobilization of antitoxic defences, and accentuates toxic effects in their hosts. Our results underline the confounding nature of parasitism in ecotoxicology and thus, highlight the importance to take into account this parameter in the environmental risk assessment
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Éric Gismondi. Étude des systèmes de défenses antitoxiques chez l'amphipode "Gammarus roeseli": effets du parasitisme et d'une exposition au cadmium. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0050⟩. ⟨tel-01749217⟩

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