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La bonne administration de la Justice pénale en Europe

Abstract : In a European comparative perspective, a study of administration of Justice and assessment of its quality means to anticipate what an independent and democratic Justice should be in the XXIst century. By carrying out comparative exercises in this field, the Council of Europe - and namely the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice - has created an assessment framework and an efficient network of pilot courts, which put the Commission's endeavors ahead of any similar works done by other organizations. The diversity of judicial systems that make part of the Council of Europe offers large possibilities for comparison, which allow sampling and categorizing of different States and elaboration of relevant quality indicators. In Europe, citizens and political classes criticize the circumstances under which Justice is rendered. However, in contrast with the past, the critique does not target specific decisions rendered in a particular case, but more so the administration of the case by the entire chain of the judicial mechanism. Quality indicators are proliferating, at risk of hindering the quality of Justice rendered. In order to give an adequate reply to new demands of the citizens, without infringing independence and quality of Justice, the European States should themselves assess the quality of Justice administration and put this issue in the heart of the public debate. In the First part of the Study, the quest for fair administration of justice allows to identify certain quality indicators relating to different forms of independence and transparency of Justice. Also, it raises the question of the new place that should be conferred to the user of Justice during the process and the timeframes to which his case is subjected. The study shows that, in the end, the quest for fair administration of Justice has a great role to play in ensuring structural and ethical independence during selection and appointment of magistrates, as well as during their entering into function and their exercise thereof. The different levels considered - institutional, functional and personal - allow projecting possible ways of evolution of the matter in Europe, including in France where the executive power still plays an important role. Reforms aiming at making Justice closer to the user are recommended: by promoting exchange between users and different partners of jurisdictions, it will become easier to define the place of the users within the Justice system, to provide an adequate 11 remedy to their problems and to make useful the time that they spent awaiting a decision on their case. In the Second part of the Study, the quest for fair administration of Justice allows to identify multiple qualitative and quantitative indicators, which relate to the case flow, to the costs, to the quality of the procedures, as well as to the financial means allocated to Justice. The last title of the study provides a synthesis and a tool for practical use: it applies the previously identified indicators to different fields of assessment and designates to every indicator the most pertinent assessment methods. The interest and the novelty of the present research reside in the comparison of the different Justice models, going beyond a purely conceptual, -architectural - approach of Justice administration and exploiting qualitative and quantitative criteria elaborated by Working Groups of international organizations. Fair administration of Justice is not only the Justice rendered and quantified by courts' activity reports. It also reflects the capacity of the Justice system to make accept and respect - by the judiciary, as well as by the public opinion - the common European criteria of "fair justice".
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 12:10:09 PM
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Julien Lhuillier. La bonne administration de la Justice pénale en Europe. Droit. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0157⟩. ⟨tel-01749231⟩



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