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Modifications de l'immunité humorale induites par des changements de la gravité

Abstract : During my PhD, I studied the impact of spaceflight-associated stresses on Pleurodeles waltl and Mus musculus humoral immunity. In adult P. waltl immunized during 5 months onboard the Mir space station (Genesis experiment in 1999), I first determined how individual VH genes are used. Then, I studied antibodies affinity maturation in these animals. This maturation implies the introduction of somatic hypermutations (SHM) in DNA encoding the variable segments of antibodies genes. These two pieces of work have shown that variable segments of heavy chain gene are differently used and that SHM frequency is reduced when immunization occurs in space. Then, I studied antibodies production during animal development onboard the international space station (ISS) (AMPHIBODY experiment in 2006). The antibodies production being increased in larvae that developed in the ISS, we recreated in the laboratory each stress encountered during the spaceflight (hypergravity, microgravity, heat shock associated to the re-entry in the atmosphere, radiations, perturbation of circadian rhythm and confinement) to determine their impact on IgM heavy chain transcription. This allowed to observe that only gravity changes affect this transcription. Finally, I studied the impact of hypergravity (2G and 3G) on the murine immune system. I observed physiological and behavioural stress responses in mice exposed to 3G but not in 2G mice. However, immune system alterations were observed in both the 2G and 3G groups, suggesting that gravity modifications, associated or not with stress responses, are responsible for immune system modifications
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Nathan Guéguinou. Modifications de l'immunité humorale induites par des changements de la gravité. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0081⟩. ⟨tel-01749240⟩

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