Quantification des anomalies neurologiques métaboliques et imagerie de sources électriques

Abstract : A possible treatment for drug-resistant partial epilepsy involves the resection of the brain region which generates crisis. The difficulty is to locate this area and to determine its extent. The objective of this thesis is to provide data to specify the location and the volume of pathological regions, using two modalities: PET (Positron Emission Tomography) imaging and HR-EEG (High-Resolution EEG: brain signals collected on the scalp with a large number of electrodes and a high sampling rate). In PET imaging, hypometabolic areas associated with regions generating seizures have to be segmented. Statistical comparisons methods using tools such as SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) between images of pathological and healthy subjects have been applied. Voxelwise statistical analyses between the different images were thus used to highlight the hypometabolic areas. For comparison with a reference population, nonlinear transformations were applied to the images so that each voxel corresponds to the same anatomical region in every subject. Two algorithms were applied: a conventional SPM method and a Block-Matching method. The results were compared by subjective clinical analysis and also on simulated data. Regarding the HR-EEG, the spatial and temporal source localizations of interictal events (spikes and slow waveforms) were done by solving the inverse problem. This allowed to localize intracerebral electrical sources generating the signals acquired on the scalp. Finally, a representation in the same space of multimodal data (PET images and HR-EEG) allowed to increase the knowledge on the relationship between electrical and metabolic activities and to better define the epileptogenic regions
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Christophe Person. Quantification des anomalies neurologiques métaboliques et imagerie de sources électriques. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0214⟩. ⟨tel-01749264⟩

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