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Réactions d'hypersensibilité immédiate en anesthésie : épidémiologie et risques environnementaux

Abstract : Immediate hypersensitivity reactions occurring during anesthesia remains a major concern for anesthesiologists. The drugs most frequently responsible for anaphylaxis are neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs). The purpose of this study is to determine the current epidemiology and to identify environmental factors that may explain the high frequency of allergic reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents that can occur without any prior exposure. In the first part of the thesis, a national survey describing the epidemiology of anaphylaxis during anesthesia between 2005 and 2007 in France was carried out. The value of testing specific IgE against NMBA was confirmed.The occurrence of immediate allergic hypersensitivity reaction when first exposure to an NMBA during induction led to evoke the existence of cross-sensitization with substances present in environment and having a quaternary ammonium compound. Different hypotheses have been proposed including exposure to cosmetics and / or disinfectants, exposure to antigens encountered in phosphorylcholine yeasts, or parasites, or exposure to a derivative opiate, pholcodine. In the second part of the thesis, two occupational populations, hairdressers apprentice exposed to chemical agents containing ammonium ions, baker and pastry maker exposed to allergens yeast and parasites were compared with the general population to search for differences regarding the prevalence of specific IgE antibody against NMBA. At the end of this work, hairdressers exposed to cosmetics agents appears to be a risk factor for developing specific IgE antibodies against NMBA and we demonstrated for the first time the hypothesis of the ross-sensitization between repeated exposures to cosmetics products containing quaternary ammonium and NMBAs
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Siwei Dong. Réactions d'hypersensibilité immédiate en anesthésie : épidémiologie et risques environnementaux. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0171⟩. ⟨tel-01749355⟩

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