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Apport de la surveillance microsismique en champ proche pour la détection de mécanismes et signes précurseurs aux instabilités gravitaires : surveillance expérimentale d'une cavité saline en exploitation : cas du site de Cerville-Buissoncourt

Abstract : The study of the precursory signs of a brutal collapse above underground caverns, with an overburden characterized by the presence of a massive and stiff bench, is a major problem for public safety. Thus, to progress in the comprehension and the evolution of the concerned mechanisms, a salt cavern, located in the NE France, was monitored in real-time, since 2004 to 2009, until its collapse. This cavern was mined by solution, until reaching its critical dimension (about 180 m) under a covering of 180 m thick, armed with a stiff Dolomite bench located at 120 m of depth.A multi-parameter high resolution monitoring system aimed at characterizing the precursory signs and following collapse itself. It included both geotechnical and geophysical devices as surface leveling measurements and a permanent microseismic network. This one, which data are the principal subject of this thesis, consisted in nine probes equipped with 40 Hz geophones (5 1D and 4 3D), distributed around and directly below the cavern, including one located in the stiff bench.The evolution of the cavern was marked by two major episodes of microseismic activity:- at the beginning of spring 2008, the dissolution restart in the cavern which caused repeated crisis with several thousand events in a few days, this represent a change in the microseismic regime and marked the cavern instability;- in February 2009, following these observations, the owner decided to trigger the collapse by intensive brine pumping in the cavern. During the three days of the operation, more than 30,000 events were recorded (against 60,000 since 2004).The study of the event signature provides essential information for operational monitoring and the discrimination of these two periods. Particularly, while maximal values reached in amplitude, energy and apparent fundamental frequency are quite stable during the 2008 episodes, the rises of this values are important during the collapse period (prior to the peak of activity), allowed us to suppose its imminence. The evolution of the microseism distribution in terms of energy released and occurrence, calculated similarly to the Gutenberg-Richter law, although often difficult to interpret, has been associated with piezometric level rises, and with small accelerations of surface subsidence. During the collapse, the microseismic activity acceleration follows a power law.Microseisms location required the establishment of an appropriate strategy to ensure the quality and the consistency of the results (record selection, calibration, parametric analysis). However, the use of a constant velocity model over all the period was impossible due to the fast and permanent evolution of the environment. Thus, several models were used, according to the a priori known cavern evolution.The event spatiotemporal distributions, thus located, revealed the existence of preferential failure structures and highlight the role of the stiff bench, located at 120 m depth
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Ngoc-Tuyen Cao. Apport de la surveillance microsismique en champ proche pour la détection de mécanismes et signes précurseurs aux instabilités gravitaires : surveillance expérimentale d'une cavité saline en exploitation : cas du site de Cerville-Buissoncourt. Sciences de la Terre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011INPL107N⟩. ⟨tel-01749444⟩

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