Contraintes sur les processus de dégazage des dorsales océaniques par la géochimie des volatils et la pétrologie des laves basaltiques

Abstract : The composition of mantle volatiles is related to the origin of Earth's volatiles and to the past and present volatile fluxes to the atmosphere. Although this reservoir is naturally sampled during volcanic eruptions, most of the volatiles are lost to the atmosphere during this event, thus the composition of mantle volatiles is still uncertain. We try here to precise the processes of degassing below mid-oceanic ridges to correct the lava compositions for degassing.The He-Ne-Ar-CO2 analyses of basaltic glasses sampled along the Galapagos Spreading Center, in the area of influence of the Galapagos hotspot, show that the volatile composition of lavas is fully explained by a Rayleigh distillation of a unique source distinct from the plume source. These results imply that the plume degasses at depth or is heterogeneous.Several volcanic glasses from Mid-Atlantic ridge and East Pacific Rise have been imaged by X-rays microtomography. The mechanisms of vesicle nucleation and growth appear to be different below the two ridges. A step of convection at the magma body margin has been evidenced by the petrologic study of the glasses. Imaged vesicles have been subsequently opened under vacuum by laser ablation and analysed (CO2, 4He, argon isotopes). We observe, depending on the samples, either a single composition for all bubbles, or variations in composition between bubbles consistent with a trend of equilibrium degassing in an open system. The trends of degassing allow extrapolating locally to the volatile composition of the mantle source, which is heterogeneous. We also studied the heterogeneity of 40Ar/36Ar ratios in magmatic chambers using the laser opening method, which lowers the contribution of atmospheric gases compared to the classical crushing method
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Aurélia Colin. Contraintes sur les processus de dégazage des dorsales océaniques par la géochimie des volatils et la pétrologie des laves basaltiques. Sciences de la Terre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010INPL083N⟩. ⟨tel-01749450⟩

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