Fractionnement et polymérisation enzymatique des lignosulfonates de sodium : études structurale, chimique, physico-chimique et cinétique

Abstract : This work aims to study the effect of diafiltration and enzymatic polymerization on the heterogeneity, the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of lignosulfonates in solution. Membrane fractionation process was carried out by diafiltration. The lignosulfonates were fractionated into five fractions with different molecular weights and polydispersity ranging from 1400 g mol-1 to 19500 g mol-1 and from 1.4 to 3.5, respectively. The results indicate that diafiltration allows obtaining fractions which have enhanced and/or different properties from unfractionated product and a less heterogeneous distribution. Fractions with a weight average molecular weight between 2500 g mol-1 and 4300 g mol-1 have the largest concentration of hydroxyl and sulfonic groups which affect their properties, since they exhibit surface and antioxidant activities higher than unfractionated lignosulfonates. The enzymatic polymerization of lignosulfonates by laccase was studied in the presence or absence of mediator. The polymerization of lignosulfonates was observed as a product of their oxidation by SEC. The main factors influencing the polymerization of lignosulfonates are (i) a very high concentration of lignosulfonates (ii) the use of fungal laccases (laccase from Trametes versicolor) with a high redox potential (iii) the use of acetosyringone or violuric acid as mediator. The effect of the reactor mode (batch, continuous and semi continuous) of the polymerization of lignosulfonates has been reported. Comparison of the results of the three modes has shown that the continuous mode led to a significant increase in molecular weight (30600 Da) and the largest decrease of the polydispersity of the synthesized polymers (3.7). Thus, this mode of conducting the reaction is more suitable for homogeneous products.
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Nidal Madad. Fractionnement et polymérisation enzymatique des lignosulfonates de sodium : études structurale, chimique, physico-chimique et cinétique. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011INPL055N⟩. ⟨tel-01749518⟩

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