Déterminants génétiques, nutritionnels et métaboliques de l'asthme professionnel

Abstract : Occupational asthma (OA) is the occupational respiratory disease most common in industrialized countries. It is a multifactorial disease involving a large number of risk factors genetic, constitutional, behavioral and environmental. At the genetic level, occupational asthma is a good model for the study of adult asthma and the mechanisms of interaction gene-gene-environment masking or modulating effect of genetic remain to be elucidated. None epidemiological studies on occupational asthma have examined the role of genetic factors in a very early exposure to allergens and airborne irritants. We initially assess the role of genetic polymorphisms related to inflammation and allergy, namely IL4RA, IL13, TNF, IL1A and IL5, on the decline of lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and increasing of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in 441 apprentice bakers / pastry-makers and hairdressers (MIBAP study). In this first part we observed interactions between IL13 and IL13 R130Q R130Q/IL4RA S478P / / IL4RA Q551R and decreased forced expiratory volume or forced vital capacity. The GG genotype of TNFA-G308A was found associated with bronchial hyperreactivity in the general population and in non-atopic subjects, we also observed that some gene-gene interactions were associated with a change in the FeNO after two years of training. In a second time, nutritionals determinants of asthma were investigated in a population of young workers employed in these occupations at risk from 3 to 10 years (ABCD study). Intake of vitamins, especially vitamins A, C, E,D, and polyunsaturated fatty acids omega 3 and 6 were studied by frequency questionnaire, the diagnosis of occupational asthma is achieved through a battery of tools (review clinical spirometry and reversibility of bronchial obstruction, FeNO measurement and examination of serum specific IgE). The results on 31 cases of occupational asthma and 196 controls showed a difference in terms of the sector: among bakers, no nutritional factor is objectified, unlike the hairdresser's asthmatics that have higher intakes vitamins A and D. B12 deficiency appears to be a risk factor for onset of occupational asthma regardless of the sector. In contrast, no correlation was found with serum levels of homocysteine and vitamin B9. Through studies in these young people at risk, it appears that the expression of certain risk factors of occupational asthma is flexible, depending on the type of exposure. The emergence of a disease such as occupational asthma involves multiple factors, most of which can be controlled and limited by effective preventive measures
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Dovi Stéphanie Acouetey-Ardoin. Déterminants génétiques, nutritionnels et métaboliques de l'asthme professionnel. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0213⟩. ⟨tel-01749618⟩

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