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Altération bactérienne des minéraux dans les écosystèmes forestiers pauvres en nutriments: Analyse des communautés bactériennes et identification des mécanismes impliqués

Abstract : In nutrient-poor forest ecosystems, minerals are the main source of inorganic nutrients for the long lasting functioning of the forests. However, these nutrients are not directly accessible to the tree roots. It is the joined action of abiotic factors, such as pH and water circulation, and biotic factors such as tree roots and soil microorganisms, and notably bacteria, which leads to the solubilisation of these minerals. To date, our knowledge of the bacterial communities involved in the mineral weathering process and their distribution in forest soils is very limited and remains restricted to habitats such as the rhizosphere and mycorrhizosphere. The goals of this PhD thesis were to characterise the mineral associated bacterial communities, their ability to weather minerals and finally to identify the bacterial genes involved in the mineral weathering process. The combination of geochemical, cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches applied on minerals grounded in a forest soil during 4 years, revealed that the mineral associated bacterial communities were specific, able to weather minerals and had restricted metabolic abilities. These results suggest that minerals could be considered as a true ecological habitat: the mineralosphere. The mineral/bacteria relationship was tested in situ through a mineral amendment applied on a small-scale plantation, which has highlighted that the nutrient availability impacted the functional structure of the mineral weathering bacterial communities. At least, random mutagenesis applied on a model mineral weathering bacterial strain revealed that its mineral weathering ability resulted from several molecular mechanisms
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-01749883
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Cendrella Lepleux. Altération bactérienne des minéraux dans les écosystèmes forestiers pauvres en nutriments: Analyse des communautés bactériennes et identification des mécanismes impliqués. Biologie végétale. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0184⟩. ⟨tel-01749883⟩

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