Analyse des processus primaires de dégradation thermochimique de la biomasse

Abstract : The primary processes of thermal degradation of biomass are studied. A bibliographical research reveals the knowledge and the deficiencies on this subject. Fast pyrolysis of cellulose pellets are carried out in an image furnace and in a solar fumace. These original experimental deviees using a concentrated radiation deliver high and clean flux densities during controled irradiance times. Ali the products of the reaction are collected and analysed by liquid and gas phase chomatography. Mass and C, H and O balances are very good. The evolution of the products composition (liquid, volatile, gas and char) are examined as a function of the irradiance time and flux density. An intermediate liquid (at the reaction temperatures) species is observed. It is directly produced from cellulose partial depolymerisation. It mainly contains anhydrooligosacharides with degrees of polymerisation ranging from two to seven. The condensable products contain few compounds, unlike the bio ails usually obtained in fast pyrolysis. Gases are formed by secondary crakings of the vapors. lt is possible to obtain only liquids and gases beyond a given flux density. The modeling of heat transfers (pellets and small particules) associated with the kinetics of decomposition is made. ln most of the cases the agreement between theory and experiments is very good. The comparison between the results of this work and those usually obtained in classical fast pyrolysis is examined on the basis of the elementary processes of heat transfers.
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Olivier Boutin. Analyse des processus primaires de dégradation thermochimique de la biomasse. Alimentation et Nutrition. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 1999. Français. ⟨NNT : 1999INPL144N⟩. ⟨tel-01749900⟩

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