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Apport des méthodes de la mécanique des fluides à l'étude des contacteurs gaz/liquide : expérience et simulation numérique

Abstract : This work is devoted to the experimental study, the modelling and the numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics of a bubble column and an external loop airlift reactor. It includes three parts. First, measuring techniques have been developed to study the local and global hydrodynamic parameters of the bubbly flow. In this section, several treatments of the fluctuating wall pressure signal have been developed to identify the prevailing flow regime; three measuring techniques have been adapted to bubbly flows in order to measure the local velocity of the continuous phase: the "Pavlov" tube, an electrochemical method and Laser Doppler Velocimetry. These techniques have completed the methods already available to study the dynamics of the gas phase: local optical probes and an ultrasound Doppler technique. Then, this set of measuring techniques has been used to characterise the hydrodynamics in both reactors. Regime transitions have been deterrnined. The local and global parameters which have been measured are: the gas hold-up; the velocity, the size and the morphology of the bubbles; the liquid velocity and its local fluctuations. The Reynolds shear stress, which could not be measured, has been estimated using a simple model. The evolution of these parameters has been related to the gas flow rate, the gas distribution and the hydrodynamic regime. The whole experimental data are finally compared to the predicted values obtained using a commercial CFD code. Several models of drag, additional forces and turbulence have been used to obtain the best agreement between calculations and experiments. The ability of this commercial code to predict correctly the flow and its current limits have been highlighted.
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-01749947
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Christophe Vial. Apport des méthodes de la mécanique des fluides à l'étude des contacteurs gaz/liquide : expérience et simulation numérique. Alimentation et Nutrition. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2000. Français. ⟨NNT : 2000INPL004N⟩. ⟨tel-01749947⟩

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